Napoleon Bonaparte (born Aug. 15, 1769) gained prominence as a General during the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802). The French Senate awarded him the title of Emperor of France on May 18, 1804; he crowned himself on Dec. 2, 1804 in Notre Dame de Paris. He also served as President, then King of Italy (1802-14). He is best noted for the Napoleonic laws and reforms he introduced, plus a series of wars. At the start he most often succeeded in the battles he led, but eventually defeats brought him down, significantly his retreat from Moscow (1812) and the Battle of Waterloo (1815).